​Click on a zoning district to learn more:

Residential-80W District (R-80W)
Residential-40W District (R-40W)
Residential-80 District (R-80)
Residential-40 District (R-40)
Residential-30 District (R-30)
Residential-20 District (R-20)
Residential-15 District (R-15)
Residential-10 District (R-10)
Residential-5 District (R-5)
Highway District (HD)
Residential Mobile Homes District (RMH)
Office and Institutional District (OI)
General Business District (GB)
Heavy Commercial District (HC)
Industrial-I District (I-I)
Industrial-II District (I-II)
Research Applications District (RA)
Airport-I District (AD-1)
Airport-II District (AD-2)
Planned Development District (PD)
CMU
RMU
Special Highway Overlay District
Resource Conservation Overlay District, 1 and 2 (RCOD-1, RCOD-2)
Water Supply Watershed III (Critical Area) Overlay District (WSO-3CA)
Water Supply Watershed II (Non Critical Area) Overlay District (WSO-2NC)
Water Supply Watershed (Non Critical Area) Overlay District (WSO-3NC)
Water Supply Watershed IV (Protected Area) Overlay District (WSO-4P1)
Water Supply Watershed IV (Protected Area) Overlay District (WSO-4P2)
Conditional Use Zoning District

 

Residential-80W District (R-80W) (Max. density = 0.50 du/ac)

R-80W zoning applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water, and only to that part of the watershed within its critical area (generally within 1/2 mile plus 300 feet of the water supply source's flood elevation). Its standards are intended to ensure that residential development (and limited nonresidential development) occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff.

The R-80W District allows very-low-density residential development, as either single-family detached or attached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 80,000 square feet of land area – or a cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.

Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this District, but generally only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Such nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, and cemeteries.
 
All nonresidential development must limit the amount of land covered by impervious surfaces (buildings, parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, etc.) to no more than 6% of the site area, and may not use or store hazardous materials on-site.
 
All development must provide and maintain 30- to 50-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.
 

 

Residential-40W District (R-40W) (Max. density = 1.00 du/ac)

 

R-40W zoning applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water, and only to that part of the watershed beyond its critical area (generally beyond 1/2 mile plus 300 feet from the water supply source's flood pool elevation). Its standards are intended to ensure that residential development (and limited nonresidential development) occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff.
 
The R-40W District allows low-density residential development, as either single-family detached or attached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 40,000 square feet of land area – or  cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this District, but generally only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, schools, churches, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (without gas pumps), barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, and cemeteries.
 
All nonresidential development must limit the amount of land covered by impervious surfaces (buildings, parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, etc.) to no more than 24% of the site area (12% in the Little River water supply watershed), and must provide stormwater management devices (detention ponds, etc.) to handle the first 1/2-inch of runoff if impervious surface coverage exceeds 12%. Nonresidential development must also take special actions to minimize the chance of, and impacts from, any spill of hazardous materials.
 
All development must provide and maintain 30- to 50-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.
 

Residential-80 District (R-80) (Max. density = 0.50 du/ac)

The R-80 District is intended to accommodate very-low-density residential development, as either single-family detached or attached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 80,000 square feet of land area – or a cluster subdivision – where lots may be reduced to as small as 40,000 square feet in area or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this District with no special review. Such uses include: schools,  libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, colleges, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.
 

Residential-40 District (R-40) (Max. density = 1.00 du/ac)

The R-40 District is intended to accommodate low-density residential development, as either single-family detached or attached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 40,000 square feet of land area – or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this district with no special review. Such uses include: schools, libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.

Residential-30 District (R-30) (Max. density = 1.45 du/ac)

R-30 zoning is the prevailing zoning classification within the County's jurisdiction. It is intended to accommodate low-density residential development, as either single-family detached or attached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 30,000 square feet of land area – or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this District with no special review. Such uses include: schools, libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.
 

Residential-20 District (R-20) (Max. density = 2.17 du/ac)

The R-20 District is intended to accommodate low- to moderate-density residential development, as either single-family attached or detached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 20,000 square feet of land area – or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this district with no special review. Such uses include: schools,  libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.

Residential-15 District (R-15) (Max. density = 2.90 du/ac)

The R-15 District is intended to accommodate low- to moderate-density residential development, as either single-family attached or detached dwellings plexes on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 15,000 square feet of land area – or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this district with no special review. Such uses include: schools,  libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.
 

Residential-10 District (R-10) (Max. density = 4.35 du/ac)

The R-10 District is intended to accommodate moderate-density residential development, as either as single-family attached or detached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 10,000 square feet of land area – or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space.
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this district with no special review. Such uses include: schools,  libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.

Residential-5 District (R-5) (Max. density = 8.70 du/ac)

The R-5 District is intended to accommodate moderate-density residential development, either as single-family attached or detached dwellings on separate lots, or as single-family attached dwellings or multifamily dwellings on a parcel containing at least 5,000 square feet of land area per dwelling unit. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 10,000 square feet of land area or cluster or Open Space Development – where lot size may be reduced and area is set aside as permanent open space,
 
Certain nonresidential uses are permitted in this district with no special review. Such uses include: schools,  libraries, museums, art galleries, and churches.
 
Other nonresidential uses are permitted only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: day care centers, community centers, government buildings, a number of principally outdoor recreational facilities, convenience stores (with or without gas pumps), automotive service and repair stations, banks, drug stores, book stores, antique shops, hardware stores, other indoor retail and service establishments, barbershops, beauty salons, shoe repair shops, self-service laundries, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.
 

Highway District (HD) (Max. density = 1.45 du/ac)

The Highway District is basically a low-density residential district comparable to the R-30 District – but one that allows a wide range of nonresidential uses with a Special Use Permit. It allows low-density residential development as either single-family attached or detached dwellings on separate lots. Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 30,000 square feet of land area – or a cluster subdivision – where lots may be reduced to as small as 12,000 square feet in area if at least 10% of the subdivision site is set aside as permanent open space, but the number of lots may not exceed the site acreage times 1.45 lots per acre.
 
A wide range of nonresidential uses is permitted in this District, but only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Most such nonresidential development is allowed only at "activity center" locations designated or defined in the County's Land Use Plan, and only for those uses and at those levels of development intensity appropriate for the particular type of activity center. Nonresidential special uses include: churches, schools, colleges, libraries, museums, art galleries, day care centers, group homes, government buildings, recreational facilities, offices, clinics, medical and dental laboratories, hotels and motels, retail stores and establishments, automobile sales, shopping centers, wholesale establishments, warehousing, airfields, bakeries, bottling plants, printers, cleaning and dyeing establishments, industrial uses, cemeteries, mining, and landfills.

Residential Mobile Homes District (RMH) (Max. density = 5.84 du/ac)

The Mobile Homes District is intended to accommodate the development of a moderate-density residential mobile home park consisting of manufactured housing units on separate "spaces" containing at least 6,000 square feet of land area each, plus developed recreation area containing at least 10,000 square feet of land area per 25 units. A mobile home park in this District is permitted only if the Zoning Administrator (staff in the Inspections/Development Plans/Permits Division of the County's Community Services Department) first approves a preliminary site plan and the Planning Board then reviews and approves a final site development plan.
 

Office and Institutional District (OI) (Max. density = 1.45 lots/ac)

The Office and Institutional District is intended to accommodate principally office and institutional uses on separate lots. Such uses include schools, colleges, libraries, museums, art galleries, churches, day care centers, government buildings, group homes, charitable institutions, offices or studios of professional and service occupations and agencies, funeral homes, and radio or television studios. The District also allows low-density residential development, as either single-family attached or detached dwellings on separate lots.
 
Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot contains at least 30,000 square feet of land area – or a cluster subdivision – where lots may be reduced to as small as 12,000 square feet in area if at least 10% of the subdivision site is set aside as permanent open space, but the number of lots may not exceed the site acreage times 1.45 lots per acre.

General Business District (GB) (Max. density = 2.17 lots/ac)

The General Business District allows principally indoor commercial retail and service uses on separate lots, without special review and subject to few requirements concerning development intensity or design. Such uses include group homes, churches, child care centers, offices, clinics, medical or dental laboratories, indoor retail and service establishments, hotels and motels, indoor commercial recreational establishments, service stations, and automobile sales.
 
Certain other residential and outdoor and higher intensity nonresidential uses are permitted in this District only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Such uses include detached or attached single-family dwellings, duplexes, and multifamily dwellings, outdoor commercial recreational establishments, kennels, and day care facilities for the elderly.
 
Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of either a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot to be devoted to at least 50% residential floor area contains at least 20,000 square feet of land area (no minimum lot size applicable otherwise) – or a cluster subdivision – where lots may be reduced to as small as 6,000 square feet in area in exchange for permanent open space, but the number of lots may not exceed the site acreage times 2.17 lots per acre.
 

Heavy Commercial District (HC)

The Heavy Commercial District allows both indoor and outdoor commercial retail and service uses, without special review and subject to few requirements concerning development intensity and design. Such uses include group homes, churches, child care centers, offices, clinics, medical or dental laboratories, retail and service establishments, hotels and motels, commercial recreational establishments, service stations, automobile sales, automotive repair garages, repair shops, wholesale establishments, and kennels.
 
Certain other higher intensity nonresidential uses are permitted in this District only if the Board of Adjustment first reviews and approves a site plan and Special Use Permit. Such uses include Outdoor Recreational Entertainment, Wholesale Trade, land clearing and inert debris landfills, recycling, and waste related endeavors.

Industrial-I District (I-I)

The Industrial-I District allows any manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, processing, storage, and distribution use, as well as associated research and administration uses – except that the storage and/or salvaging of junk is prohibited.
 
Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of a lot-by-lot subdivision, but no lot size or lot density standards apply.
 
All development in the District must comply with performance standards for noise, odor, glare, heat, exterior lighting, vibration, airborne emissions, toxic matter, fore and explosion, radiation, radioactivity, electric radiation, and waste.
 

Industrial-II District (I-II)

The Industrial-II District allows any manufacturing, fabrication, assembly, processing, storage, and distribution use, as well as associated research and administration uses – and allows the indoor, or screened outdoor, storage and/or salvaging of junk.
 
All development in the District must comply with performance standards for noise, odor, glare, heat, exterior lighting, vibration, airborne emissions, toxic matter, fore and explosion, radiation, radioactivity, electric radiation and waste.

Research Applications District (RA) (Max. density = 0.125 lot/ac)

The Research Applications District is intended to accommodate research and research application uses that benefit from location in or next to – and a strong association with – the Research Triangle Park. The District allows a range of central uses related to research and development, including laboratories and other facilities for basic or applied research and development, pilot plants, prototype production facilities, manufacturing uses with a high degree of scientific input, and facilities for organizations or associations that promote research. – as well as auxiliary administrative, communication, and service uses that serve the central uses.
 
Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of a lot-by-lot subdivision – where each lot to be devoted to a central use contains at least 8 acres of land area.
 
All development must limit the amount of land covered by impervious surface (buildings, parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, etc.) to no more than 30% of the site area. The District's only other intensity standards pertain to setbacks.
 
All development in the District must comply with performance standards for glare, exterior lighting, radio frequencies, and waste.
 

Airport-I District (AD-1)

The Airport-I District allows a wide range of industrial, commercial, agricultural, recreational, and other nonresidential uses – but prohibits any new residential development and most nonresidential development that involves high concentrations of people.
 
Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of a lot-by-lot subdivision, but no lot size standards apply.
 
The District's only intensity standards pertain to building setbacks and transitional bufferyards.
 
Airport-I District regulations differ from those for the Airport-II District in that they apply setbacks for the overnight parking of heavy equipment, mobile homes, and trailers, and they require certain uses to be enclosed when close to a road.

Airport-II District (AD-2)

The Airport-II District allows a wide range of industrial, commercial, agricultural, recreational, and other nonresidential uses – but prohibits any new residential development and most nonresidential development that involves high concentrations of people.
 
Most divisions of parcels into separate building lots must be approved by the Planning Board as part of a lot-by-lot subdivision, but no lot size standards apply.
 
The District's only intensity standards pertain to building setbacks and transitional bufferyards.
 
Airport-II District regulations differ from those for the Airport-I District in that they do not apply setbacks for the overnight parking of heavy equipment, mobile homes, and trailers, and they do not require certain uses to be enclosed when close to a road.
 

Planned Development District (PD)

The PD, Planned Development district is intended to permit the establishment of areas in which diverse uses may be combined and integrated through careful planning to provide a unified and compatible development which is consistent with the general comprehensive plan, and which may reasonably be expected to result in a quality of living environment which is more closely in keeping with the purposes of zoning than would otherwise likely be obtained. It is not the intent of the Board of Commissioners that the PD district become a “loophole” designed to permit otherwise illegal contract, conditional or spot zoning, or the clandestine institution of the unlawful use variance. Rather, the PD district is intended to permit further refinement and more detailed expression of the general comprehensive plan in situations where the owners of the property present a development plan which is found to be in the public interest and consistent with the general comprehensive plan.

CMU

Classic Mixed-Use districts (CMU) are intended to provide a rich mix of residential, shopping, employment and recreational uses and be surrounded by residential areas adequate in size and population to help support the nonresidential uses within designated activity centers. A design feature that helps ensure activity centers and residential support areas are compatible in terms of land use type and density is transitional development. Design guidelines for activity centers place an emphasis on achieving safe and efficient access to thoroughfares, highly connected roads and paths, and visual compatibility of development within the activity centers with surrounding residential areas.
 

RMU

Residential Mixed-Use districts (RMU) are intended to encourage unified residential developments that offer a mix of housing types such as apartments, condominiums, townhouses and/or single-family detached homes. This will provide a range of housing opportunities to a diversified economic group while creating a sense of a unified

Special Highway Overlay District

The Special Highway Overlay District applies to land adjacent to certain designated major highways. It is intended to help ensure that such land is developed so as to maintain or enhance the natural scenic beauty and wooded character viewed by travelers along the highway, as well as to mitigate the highway's potential adverse impacts on adjacent land uses.
 
District regulations limit building height in relation to the building's distance from the highway, apply special vegetative bufferyard and screening standards along the highway right-of-way, and restrict signage visible from the highway.
 

Resource Conservation Overlay District, 1 and 2 (RCOD-1, RCOD-2)

The Resource Conservation Overlay District 1 and 2 applies to land adjacent to and draining into certain water impoundments that the County identified as providing significant wildlife or plant habitat or special recreational opportunities, and is intended to help protect the water quality of the impoundments. The District has been applied to land around only two impoundments: Robersons Pond (northeast of Wendell) and Bass Lake (between Holly Springs and Fuquay-Varina).
 
District regulations require vegetative buffers along the impoundment and drainageways leading to the impoundment, as well as a building setback from the buffers.

Water Supply Watershed III (Critical Area) Overlay District (WSO-3CA)

The Water Supply Watershed III Critical Area Overlay District applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water that is classified as WS-II by the State (e.g., the Little River water supply watershed), and only to that part of the watershed within its critical area (within 2 mile plus 300 feet of the water supply source's flood elevation), and only to land whose underlying zoning is not R-80W or R-40W. The District thus generally overlays small isolated areas with nonresidential zoning. It may be applied as part of the rezoning of additional land to a nonresidential zoning district, but only within an Urban Services Area/Water Supply Watershed (as designated in the County Land Use Plan) and in accord with an adopted area land use plan.
 
The District supplements regulations applicable within the underlying zoning district with standards are intended to ensure that the residential and/or nonresidential development allowed by the underlying zoning district occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff. Because it generally applies atop nonresidential zoning, it minimizing development intensity by limiting impervious surface coverage rather than residential density. The District limits impervious surface coverage from new development to 12% of a site's area, although impervious surface coverage from existing development is not counted when applying the limit, and residential developments are exempt from the limit where lot size is 40,000 square feet or more or lot density is 1 per acre or less.
 
As in other zoning districts intended to protect water supply watersheds, all development must provide and maintain 30- to 100-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.
 

Water Supply Watershed II (Non Critical Area) Overlay District (WSO-2NC)

The Water Supply Watershed II Overlay District applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water that is classified as WS-II by the State (e.g., the Little River water supply watershed), and only to that part of the watershed beyond its critical area (beyond 2 mile plus 300 feet from the water supply source's flood elevation), and only to land whose underlying zoning is not R-80W or R-40W. The District thus generally overlays small isolated areas with nonresidential zoning. It may be applied as part of the rezoning of additional land to a nonresidential zoning district, but only within an Urban Services Area/Water Supply Watershed (as designated in the County Land Use Plan) and in accord with an adopted area land use plan.
 
The District supplements regulations applicable within the underlying zoning district with standards are intended to ensure that the residential and/or nonresidential development allowed by the underlying zoning district occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff. Because it generally applies atop nonresidential zoning, it minimizing development intensity by limiting impervious surface coverage rather than residential density. The District limits impervious surface coverage from new development to 12% of a site's area, although impervious surface coverage from existing development is not counted when applying the limit, and residential developments are exempt from the limit where lot size is 40,000 square feet or more or lot density is 1 per acre or less.
 
As in other zoning districts intended to protect water supply watersheds, all development must provide and maintain 30- to 100-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.

Water Supply Watershed (Non Critical Area) Overlay District (WSO-3NC)

The Water Supply Watershed Non Critical Area Overlay District applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water that is classified as WS-III by the State (e.g., the Swift Creek water supply watershed), and only to that part of the watershed beyond its critical area (as delineated on the Swift Creek Land Management Plan), and only to land whose underlying zoning is not R-80W or R-40W. The District thus generally overlays small isolated areas with nonresidential zoning. It may be applied as part of the rezoning of additional land to a nonresidential zoning district, but only within an Urban Services Area/Water Supply Watershed (as designated in the County Land Use Plan) and in accord with an adopted area land use plan.
 
The District supplements regulations applicable within the underlying zoning district with standards are intended to ensure that the residential and/or nonresidential development allowed by the underlying zoning district occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff. Because it generally applies atop nonresidential zoning, it minimizes development intensity by limiting impervious surface coverage rather than residential density. The District limits impervious surface coverage from new development to 24% of a site's area, although impervious surface coverage from existing development is not counted when applying the limit, and residential developments are exempt from the limit where lot size is 20,000 square feet or more or lot density is 2 per acre or less.
 
As in other zoning districts intended to protect water supply watersheds, all development must provide and maintain 30- to 100-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.
 

Water Supply Watershed IV (Protected Area) Overlay District (WSO-4P1)

The Water Supply Watershed Protected Area Overlay District applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water that is classified as WS-IV by the State – except the Falls Lake watershed – (e.g., Jordan Lake, Cape Fear (Lillington), and Cape Fear (Sanford) water supply watersheds), and only to that part of the watershed beyond its critical area (beyond 2 mile plus 300 feet from of the water supply source's flood elevation), and only to land whose underlying zoning is not R-80W or R-40W. The District thus generally overlays small isolated areas with nonresidential zoning. It may be applied as part of the rezoning of additional land to a nonresidential zoning district, but only within an Urban Services Area/Water Supply Watershed (as designated in the County Land Use Plan) and in accord with an adopted area land use plan.
 
The District supplements regulations applicable within the underlying zoning district with standards are intended to ensure that the residential and/or nonresidential development allowed by the underlying zoning district occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff. Because it generally applies atop nonresidential zoning, it minimizing development intensity by limiting impervious surface coverage rather than residential density. The District limits impervious surface coverage from new development to 30% of a site's area (24% if the development have curb and gutter systems), although impervious surface coverage from existing development is not counted when applying the limit, and residential developments are exempt from the limit where lot size is 15,000 square feet or more or lot density is 2 per acre or less.
 
As in other zoning districts intended to protect water supply watersheds, all development must provide and maintain 30- to 100-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.
  

Water Supply Watershed IV (Protected Area) Overlay District (WSO-4P2)

The Watershed Protected Area Overlay-2 District applies only to land within the watershed of an existing or planned source of public drinking water that is classified as WS-IV by the State – except the Falls Lake watershed – (e.g., Jordan Lake, Cape Fear (Lillington), and Cape Fear (Sanford) water supply watersheds), and only to that part of the watershed beyond its critical area (beyond 2 mile plus 300 feet from of the water supply source's flood elevation), and only to land whose underlying zoning is not R-80W or R-40W. The District may be applied as part of the rezoning of additional land to a nonresidential zoning district, but only within an Urban Services Area/Water Supply Watershed (as designated in the County Land Use Plan) and in accord with an adopted area land use plan. The District is limited to no more than 10% of the area of that part of the watershed within the County's zoning jurisdiction. Thus far, it has been applied only to that part of the Research Triangle Park located within the protected area of the Jordan Lake water supply watershed, with the intent of allowing all development within the Park to meet the same 30% impervious surface coverage limit, whether or not it includes curb and gutter systems.
 
The District supplements regulations applicable within the underlying zoning district with standards are intended to ensure that the residential and/or nonresidential development allowed by the underlying zoning district occurs at intensities low enough to minimize pollution of the water supply source from stormwater runoff. Because it generally applies atop nonresidential zoning, it minimizing development intensity by limiting impervious surface coverage rather than residential density. The District limits impervious surface coverage from new development to 30% of a site's area (whether or not it includes curb and gutter systems), although impervious surface coverage from existing development is not counted when applying the limit, and residential developments are exempt from the limit where lot size is 15,000 square feet or more or lot density is 2 per acre or less.
 
As in other zoning districts intended to protect water supply watersheds, all development must provide and maintain 30- to 100-foot-wide strips of land along water bodies and drainageways as naturally vegetated buffers that allow the infiltration of stormwater runoff and filtration of pollutants. Development must also set buildings back at least 20 feet from these buffers.
 
The Watershed Protected Area Overlay District differs from the Watershed Protected Area Overlay District solely in that it does not apply a lower impervious surface coverage limit (24%) to development involving curb and gutter systems.
 

Conditional Use Zoning District

For nearly all of the general use zoning districts listed above under Residential and Nonresidential Zoning Districts, there exists a comparable conditional use district in which the same regulations apply, plus any additional, more restrictive regulations proposed to be applied by the owner of land through the rezoning process. Conditional use zoning can be applied to land only if requested by its owner, and only subject to whatever additional regulations ("conditions") proposed by the landowner. Rezoning land to a conditional use zoning district provides the landowner an opportunity to "tailor" his or her rezoning request, typically to avoid zoning that might be deemed as allowing too broad a range of uses or too intense a level of development to be consistent with the County's Land Use Plan.
 
For example, the owner of land currently zoned Residential-30 might wish to have the land rezoned to allow the development of a small, low-intensity retail store. If the Land Use Plan classifies the site as part of an Urban Neighborhood Activity Center, such use  would be consistent with the Land Use Plan. Rezoning the land to General Business would allow the desired development, but would also allow more intense and larger scale nonresidential development, such as shopping centers, large retail stores, motels, automobile sales lots, etc.. Because the Urban Neighborhood Activity Center classification calls for low intensity, small scale nonresidential development, the more intense and larger scale development allowed by "straight" General Business zoning would not be consistent with the Land Use Plan. Furthermore, the higher intensity development allowed by General Business zoning may raise serious concerns about traffic congestion, water quality, or compatibility with adjacent development – any of which may jeopardize the requisite conclusion that rezoning the land to General Business advances the public health, safety, and general welfare. To avoid such a possibility, the landowner might instead request rezoning to a Conditional Use General Business District and propose additional conditions that make normal General Business District regulations more restrictive – by limiting the range of uses or intensity of development allowed, or by requiring additional development design measures to remedy or mitigate a particular anticipated problem.
 
[Note: Wake County's form of conditional use zoning districts is expressly authorized by special State legislation unique to Wake County, and differs from the conditional use or special use districts usually found elsewhere. In most local jurisdictions in North Carolina that have conditional use or special use zoning districts, the regulations applicable within the district are the same as those applicable in the comparable general use district except that any development in the conditional use or special use district requires a conditional use or special use permit. An application for rezoning to a conditional use district is thus usually accompanied by an application for conditional use permit, including a site plan for a particular development. Although both applications may be reviewed and decided conterminously, the deciding body does have the authority to impose conditions on its approval of the conditional use permit if deemed necessary to meet required approval criteria.]

 

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